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God Of Sun Apollo VideoGreek Mythology: Story of Apollo
For some reason Romans worshiped him as a God, while keeping his very same name; that was something rare in those times. We hoped you enjoyed the first of our series for ancient Gods and Goddesses of Greece and their relation to destinations in Greece and the world.
Protect yourself while traveling Booking Cheap Flights: What you need to know Booking an Accommodation: The Lyre of was created by god Hermes.
Hymns were sung to Apollo called paeans. Check out our latest. As a result, to keep peace in the godly family, Zeus killed him with a thunderbolt.
After his death, Aesculapius became a god and he was also placed among the constellations, where he is pictured as a man holding a serpent in his hands.
His symbol, the rod of Aesculapias, is not to be confused with the staff of Hermes , or the Caduceus.
The rod of Aesculapias is a single rod with a single snake. The Caduceus is a rod with two intertwined snakes and wings. The Sun is the star nearest to the Earth and it is like a sea of flame which is restless and seething.
In ancient times, people thought of the Sun as a perfect sphere of celestial fire created by the gods. About Earths could fit side by side across the diameter of the Sun.
Although the energy of the Sun comes from deep within, the light we see comes from an outer shell, called the photosphere, just miles km thick. It is only through this outer layer that light, heat, and other types of radiation can escape.
The photosphere glows because it is heated to nearly 5,K Kelvin by the nuclear reactions in the core. At the request of Apollo, however, Zeus metamorphosed him into an eagle.
Apollo saved a shepherd name unknown from death in a large deep cave, by the means of vultures. To thank him, the shepherd built Apollo a temple under the name Vulturius.
Apollo guided Aphrodite, who was grief-stricken with Adonis' death, to his sanctuary and helped her free herself from the heartbreak. Apollo divides months into summer and winter.
During his absence, Delphi was under the care of Dionysus , and no prophecies were given during winters.
Apollo turned Cephissus into a sea monster. Another contender for the birthplace of Apollo is the Cretan islands of Paximadia.
Hermes was born on Mount Cyllene in Arcadia. The story is told in the Homeric Hymn to Hermes. Maia wrapped the infant in blankets but Hermes escaped while she was asleep.
Hermes ran to Thessaly , where Apollo was grazing his cattle. The infant Hermes stole a number of his cows and took them to a cave in the woods near Pylos , covering their tracks.
In the cave, he found a tortoise and killed it, then removed the insides. He used one of the cow's intestines and the tortoise shell and made the first lyre.
Apollo complained to Maia that her son had stolen his cattle, but Hermes had already replaced himself in the blankets she had wrapped him in, so Maia refused to believe Apollo's claim.
Zeus intervened and, claiming to have seen the events, sided with Apollo. Hermes then began to play music on the lyre he had invented.
Apollo, a god of music, fell in love with the instrument and offered to allow exchange of the cattle for the lyre. Hence, Apollo then became a master of the lyre.
Once Pan had the audacity to compare his music with that of Apollo and to challenge Apollo, the god of music. The mountain-god Tmolus was chosen to umpire.
Pan blew on his pipes, and with his rustic melody gave great satisfaction to himself and his faithful follower, Midas , who happened to be present.
Then Apollo struck the strings of his lyre. It was so beautiful that Tmolus at once awarded the victory to Apollo, and everyone were pleased with the judgement.
Only Midas dissented and questioned the justice of the award. Apollo would not suffer such a depraved pair of ears any longer, and caused them to become the ears of a donkey.
Marsyas was a satyr who was punished by Apollo for his hubris. He had found an aulos on the ground, tossed away after being invented by Athena because it made her cheeks puffy.
When he played the flute, everyone became frenzied with joy. This led Marsyas to think that he was better than Apollo, and he challenged the god to a musical contest.
The contest was judged by the Muses. The contestants agreed to the rule that the victor can do anything with the loser.
After they each performed, both were deemed equal until Apollo decreed they play and sing at the same time. As Apollo played the lyre , this was easy to do.
Marsyas could not do this, as he only knew how to use the flute and could not sing at the same time. Apollo was declared the winner because of this.
According to some, Marsyas played his flute out of tune at one point and accepted his defeat. Out of shame, he assigned to himself the punishment of being skinned for a wine sack.
Marsyas could not do this with his instrument the flute , and so Apollo hung him from a tree to flay him alive. Apollo flayed Marsyas alive in a cave near Celaenae in Phrygia for his hubris to challenge a god.
He then nailed Marsyas' shaggy skin to a nearby pine-tree. Marsyas' blood turned into the river Marsyas.
Apollo, as an act of repent and purification for killing Marsyas, tore the strings of his lyre and stayed away from music for a long time.
Apollo also had a lyre -playing contest with Cinyras , who committed suicide when he lost. Love affairs ascribed to Apollo are a late development in Greek mythology.
Daphne was a nymph , daughter of the river god Peneus , who had scorned Apollo. Following a spirited chase by Apollo, Daphne prays to her father Peneus for help and he changes her into the laurel tree, sacred to Apollo.
Artemis Daphnaia, who had her temple among the Lacedemonians, at a place called Hypsoi  in Antiquity, on the slopes of Mount Cnacadion near the Spartan frontier,  had her own sacred laurel trees.
Apollo is said to have been the lover of all nine Muses , and not being able to choose one of them, decided to remain unwed. Cyrene , was a Thessalian princess whom Apollo loved.
In her honor, he built the city Cyrene and made her it's ruler. She was later granted longevity by Apollo who turned her into a nymph. The couple had two sons, Aristaeus , and Idmon.
Evadne was princess or nymph of Arcadia and a lover of Apollo. She bore him a son, Iamos. During the time of the childbirth, Apollo sent Eileithyia , the goddess of childbirth to assist her.
Rhoeo , a princess of the island of Naxos was loved by Apollo. Out of affection for her, Apollo turned her sisters into goddesses.
On the island Delos she bore Apollo a son named Anius. She entrusted the child to Apollo, who raised and educated the child on his own.
Hyrie or Thyrie was the mother of Cycnus. Apollo turned both the mother and son into swans when they jumped into a lake and tried to kill themselves.
An oracle prophesied that Troy would not be defeated as long as Troilus reached the age of twenty alive. He was ambushed and killed by Achilleus , and Apollo avenged his death by killing Achilles.
Marpessa was kidnapped by Idas but was loved by Apollo as well. Zeus made her choose between them, and she chose Idas on the grounds that Apollo, being immortal, would tire of her when she grew old.
Bolina was admired by Apollo but she refused his advances and jumped into the sea. To avoid her death, Apollo turned her into a nymph and let her go.
Castalia was a nymph whom Apollo loved. She fled from him and dove into the spring at Delphi, at the base of Mt. Parnassos , which was then named after her.
Water from this spring was sacred; it was used to clean the Delphian temples and inspire the priestesses. In the last oracle is mentioned that the "water which could speak", has been lost for ever.
Cassandra , was daughter of Hecuba and Priam, and Troilus' half-sister. Apollo fell in love with Cassandra and she promised to return it on a condition that Apollo gift to her the prophetic powers.
Apollo granted her wish but she rejected him afterwards. Enraged, Apollo indeed gave her the ability to know the future, with a curse that she could only see the future tragedies and that no one would ever believe her.
Coronis , was daughter of Phlegyas , King of the Lapiths. While pregnant with Asclepius , Coronis fell in love with Ischys , son of Elatus and slept with him.
When Apollo found out about her infidelity through his prophetic powers, he sent his sister, Artemis, to kill Coronis. Apollo rescued the baby by cutting open Koronis' belly and gave it to the centaur Chiron to raise.
He used his powers to conceal her pregnancy from her father. Later, when Creusa left Ion to die in the wild, Apollo asked Hermes to save the child and bring him to the oracle at Delphi , where he was raised by a priestess.
Hyacinth or Hyacinthus was one of Apollo's male lovers. He was a Spartan prince, beautiful and athletic. The pair was practicing throwing the discus when a discus thrown by Apollo was blown off course by the jealous Zephyrus and struck Hyacinthus in the head, killing him instantly.
Apollo is said to be filled with grief: The festival Hyacinthia was a national celebration of Sparta, which commemorated the death and rebirth of Hyacinthus.
Another male lover was Cyparissus , a descendant of Heracles. Apollo gave him a tame deer as a companion but Cyparissus accidentally killed it with a javelin as it lay asleep in the undergrowth.
Cyparissus asked Apollo to let his tears fall forever. Apollo granted the request by turning him into the Cypress named after him, which was said to be a sad tree because the sap forms droplets like tears on the trunk.
In Aeschylus ' Oresteia trilogy, Clytemnestra kills her husband, King Agamemnon because he had sacrificed their daughter Iphigenia to proceed forward with the Trojan war, and Cassandra , a prophetess of Apollo.
Apollo gives an order through the Oracle at Delphi that Agamemnon's son, Orestes , is to kill Clytemnestra and Aegisthus , her lover. Orestes and Pylades carry out the revenge, and consequently Orestes is pursued by the Erinyes or Furies female personifications of vengeance.
Apollo and the Furies argue about whether the matricide was justified; Apollo holds that the bond of marriage is sacred and Orestes was avenging his father, whereas the Erinyes say that the bond of blood between mother and son is more meaningful than the bond of marriage.
They invade his temple, and he drives them away. He says that the matter should be brought before Athena.
Apollo promises to protect Orestes, as Orestes has become Apollo's supplicant. Apollo advocates Orestes at the trial, and ultimately Athena rules in favor of Apollo.
The Roman worship of Apollo was adopted from the Greeks. On the occasion of a pestilence in the s BCE, Apollo's first temple at Rome was established in the Flaminian fields, replacing an older cult site there known as the "Apollinare".
After the battle of Actium , which was fought near a sanctuary of Apollo, Augustus enlarged Apollo's temple, dedicated a portion of the spoils to him, and instituted quinquennial games in his honour.
The chief Apollonian festival was the Pythian Games held every four years at Delphi and was one of the four great Panhellenic Games.
Also of major importance was the Delia held every four years on Delos. Athenian annual festivals included the Boedromia , Metageitnia ,  Pyanepsia , and Thargelia.
Spartan annual festivals were the Carneia and the Hyacinthia. Thebes every nine years held the Daphnephoria.
Apollo's most common attributes were the bow and arrow. Other attributes of his included the kithara an advanced version of the common lyre , the plectrum and the sword.
Another common emblem was the sacrificial tripod , representing his prophetic powers. The Pythian Games were held in Apollo's honor every four years at Delphi.
The bay laurel plant was used in expiatory sacrifices and in making the crown of victory at these games. The palm tree was also sacred to Apollo because he had been born under one in Delos.
Animals sacred to Apollo included wolves , dolphins, roe deer , swans , cicadas symbolizing music and song , hawks , ravens , crows , snakes referencing Apollo's function as the god of prophecy , mice and griffins , mythical eagle—lion hybrids of Eastern origin.
As god of colonization, Apollo gave oracular guidance on colonies, especially during the height of colonization, — BCE. According to Greek tradition, he helped Cretan or Arcadian colonists found the city of Troy.
However, this story may reflect a cultural influence which had the reverse direction: Hittite cuneiform texts mention a Minor Asian god called Appaliunas or Apalunas in connection with the city of Wilusa attested in Hittite inscriptions, which is now generally regarded as being identical with the Greek Ilion by most scholars.
In this interpretation, Apollo's title of Lykegenes can simply be read as "born in Lycia", which effectively severs the god's supposed link with wolves possibly a folk etymology.
In literary contexts, Apollo represents harmony, order, and reason—characteristics contrasted with those of Dionysus , god of wine, who represents ecstasy and disorder.
The contrast between the roles of these gods is reflected in the adjectives Apollonian and Dionysian. However, the Greeks thought of the two qualities as complementary: This contrast appears to be shown on the two sides of the Borghese Vase.
Apollo is often associated with the Golden Mean. This is the Greek ideal of moderation and a virtue that opposes gluttony. Apollo is a common theme in Greek and Roman art and also in the art of the Renaissance.
Greek art puts into Apollo the highest degree of power and beauty that can be imagined. The sculptors derived this from observations on human beings, but they also embodied in concrete form, issues beyond the reach of ordinary thought.
The naked bodies of the statues are associated with the cult of the body that was essentially a religious activity. The muscular frames and limbs combined with slim waists indicate the Greek desire for health, and the physical capacity which was necessary in the hard Greek environment.
The statues of Apollo embody beauty, balance and inspire awe before the beauty of the world. The evolution of the Greek sculpture can be observed in his depictions from the almost static formal Kouros type in early archaic period , to the representation of motion in a relative harmonious whole in late archaic period.
In classical Greece the emphasis is not given to the illusive imaginative reality represented by the ideal forms, but to the analogies and the interaction of the members in the whole, a method created by Polykleitos.
Finally Praxiteles seems to be released from any art and religious conformities, and his masterpieces are a mixture of naturalism with stylization.
The evolution of the Greek art seems to go parallel with the Greek philosophical conceptions, which changed from the natural-philosophy of Thales to the metaphysical theory of Pythagoras.
Thales searched for a simple material-form directly perceptible by the senses, behind the appearances of things, and his theory is also related to the older animism.
This was paralleled in sculpture by the absolute representation of vigorous life, through unnaturally simplified forms. Pythagoras believed that behind the appearance of things, there was the permanent principle of mathematics, and that the forms were based on a transcendental mathematical relation.
His ideas had a great influence on post-Archaic art. The Greek architects and sculptors were always trying to find the mathematical relation, that would lead to the esthetic perfection.
In classical Greece, Anaxagoras asserted that a divine reason mind gave order to the seeds of the universe, and Plato extended the Greek belief of ideal forms to his metaphysical theory of forms ideai , "ideas".
The forms on earth are imperfect duplicates of the intellectual celestial ideas. The artists in Plato's time moved away from his theories and art tends to be a mixture of naturalism with stylization.
The Greek sculptors considered the senses more important, and the proportions were used to unite the sensible with the intellectual.
Kouros male youth is the modern term given to those representations of standing male youths which first appear in the archaic period in Greece.
This type served certain religious needs and was first proposed for what was previously thought to be depictions of Apollo.
The formality of their stance seems to be related with the Egyptian precedent, but it was accepted for a good reason. The sculptors had a clear idea of what a young man is, and embodied the archaic smile of good manners, the firm and springy step, the balance of the body, dignity, and youthful happiness.
When they tried to depict the most abiding qualities of men, it was because men had common roots with the unchanging gods. Apollo was the immortal god of ideal balance and order.
His shrine in Delphi , that he shared in winter with Dionysius had the inscriptions: In the first large-scale depictions during the early archaic period — BC , the artists tried to draw one's attention to look into the interior of the face and the body which were not represented as lifeless masses, but as being full of life.
The Greeks maintained, until late in their civilization, an almost animistic idea that the statues are in some sense alive.
This embodies the belief that the image was somehow the god or man himself. The statue is the "thing in itself", and his slender face with the deep eyes express an intellectual eternity.
According to the Greek tradition the Dipylon master was named Daedalus , and in his statues the limbs were freed from the body, giving the impression that the statues could move.